Acceptable Proportion of Moisture / Defective / Admixture

Step Hazards Control Measures Monitoring
Growing During flowering season if infestation from tea mosquitoes occurs, black spots develop on cashew kernel leading to deterioration of quality. The infestation can be prevented by applying approved and recommended insecticide. Ensure plants are sprayed time to time & that recommended guidelines of spraying are followed.
Harvesting Immature nuts lead to shrivelled kernel. Make the farmers aware about correct harvest technology and stress the importance of the same Analysis of nut quality, % of immature nut.
Raw nut drying Spoilage and possible presence of mycotoxin. The nuts to be dried for 2 to 3 days before storing. When drying the nuts, the nuts to be turned periodically and protected from rain and vermin. The drying brings down 8 to 9 % moisture. Drying should continue until they make rattling sound when shaken in hand.
Raw nut storage Increase in moisture level results in bad quality kernels and insect infestation. Good ventilation in storage room. Usage of new fumigated gunny bags. The first- in - first - out principle to be observed. Storage rooms to be fumigated from time to time. Check the godown with respect to effectiveness of anti-infestation measures. Also observe the arrangements for aeration and ventilation.
Steam roasting Cutting problem i.e. gets more broken kernel and requires more time Steaming time - temperature control Check every batch is steamed for standard time and boiler is burning continuously
Shelling Broken kernels exposed to outside environment results in contamination of dirt shell oil and bacteria. The shelling section should be clean. Workers to be trained to get more than 90 % whole kernel. Workers have to maintain good personal hygiene as well as keep the machine and utensils clean used during shelling. The percentage of whole and broken kernel should be checked. The cleanliness of shelling section, plant sanitation schedules should be checked. The hygiene of the shelling workers also should be checked.
Drying If required temp is not attained and maintained, testa removal becomes difficult. Over drying and high temperature leads to scorched kernel. The drying should be carried out at 70°C for 6 to 7 hrs. The temperature residence time has to be checked. After 5-hrs check if the kernels are peeling properly and continue drying till easy peeling of kernel.
Cooling Chances of infestation and fungal attack resulting in mycotoxin production. Cooling is done at clean section. The cooling section has to be regularly subjected to sanitation measures and anti-infestation measure
Peeling / Grading Formation of scratches, insect infestation, bacterial contamination, moulds growth. The uses of sharp instruments should be avoided. The peeling section should be maintained in good hygienic condition. The peeled /Graded kernels to be kept in to clean containers. Check control measures are followed in peeling operation.
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